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Long and triple jump training



Understanding and Coaching Individual Long Jump Components

Source: www.coacheseducation.com
By Ed Jacoby
U.S.A. Olympic Coach
Boise State University, Boise, Idaho


GENERAL OBJECTIVES

1. SPEED AT TAKE-OFF
2. ANGLE OF TAKE-OFF
3. HEIGHT OF THE CENTER OF MASS AT TAKE-OFF
4. CONTROLLING BALANCE AND ROTATIONS
5. EFFICIENT LANDING

Note: It must be remembered that although these objectives are individual, they must be grouped into a whole and they generally are contingent upon each other. When one of these components change, look for the others to change too. A common rule is: If there is a problem with one portion of the jump, it is usually the result of the preceding phase.


DISCUSSION OF THE FACTORS

1. SPEED AT TAKE-OFF
a. Occurs only at the instant of foot release
b. It is developed throughout the runway (the acceleration curve and the acceleration progression)
c. Speed occurs from a blend of momentum, stride length and turnover. Time of foot contacts during push-out steps.
d. For speed to be effective in the jump, there must be a conversion from horizontal to vertical.
e. The mechanics of the last three steps are crucial for an effective jump; the key being to slow horizontal as little as possible while making as big a vertical force as possible.
f. The need to develop an effective runway model: length of run, coach's mark, and speed through this mark to take-off.

2. ESTABLISHING AN EFFECTIVE ANGLE OF TAKE-OFF
a. The angle of which we speak occurs only through the center of mass.
b. Identifying the parabola or flight path of the athlete. It is determined only on the ground.
c. The flatter the parabola, the more speed saved into the jump.
d. Nothing the athlete does in the air will change speed or angle; however, body maneuvers can shift the center of mass on the flight curve.

3. THE IMPORTANCE OF CENTER OF MASS HEIGHT
a. At instant of free flight, gravity begins to act on the athlete. Because of this, the taller or the higher the athlete is at take-off, the greater the distance of travel.
b. An additional factor for achieving hip height is, the more velocity achieved, the higher the center of mass will ultimately be. Example: 6 meters per second = 7", 8 meters per second = 16" and 10 meters per second = 22"

4. UNDERSTANDING BALANCE AND ROTATIONS DURING THE FLIGHT PHASE OF THE LONG JUMP
a. Forward rotation is the enemy of the conventional long jumper.
b. A long body or limb axis is the means of retarding rotational problems
c. Developing a secondary rotation is the means of absorbing rotation.
d. The sail, hang and hitch-kick styles of long jumping
e. Understanding action and reaction and center of mass shifting during the landing.

SELECTED LONG JUMP DRILLS

1. Count (take-off foot) runways with pop away from runway.
2. Timed last four steps to determine length of runway
3. Power skips
4. Galloping
5. Split Drills
6. Alternate Split Drill
7. Downhill Running
8. Knees to Chest Pre-landing Drill
9. All bounding drills to aid posture and body alignment



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