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Injuries



Causes of Achilles Tendon Injury

Achilles tendon injuries can be caused by: overuse, misalignment, improper footwear, medication side effects, and/or accidents. Multiple causes often contribute to the same Achilles tendon injury. For example: a sudden increase in hill climbing, worn out shoes, and weak or tight calf muscles could all contribute to Achilles tendinosis and Achilles tendonitis.

Overuse

- Too fast of an increase in athletic activities such as:
  - Running or walking longer;
  - Running or walking faster;
  - Running or walking up and down more or steeper hills or stairs;
  - More or more powerful “explosive” movements such as lunges, jumps, or push off’s.

- The athletic activity by itself is not the problem, the problem is doing too much too quickly or resuming too quickly after a layoff.

- Types of injuries caused:
  - Achilles tendinosis,
  - Achilles tendonitis,
  - Achilles tenosynovitis,
  - Tennis Leg, or
  - in the most severe cases: Achilles tendon rupture.

Misalignment

- Examples:
  - Unequal leg length,
  - Over or under pronation,
  - Short or tight Achilles tendons or calf muscles,
  - Disproportionably weak calf muscles, and
  - Misshapen heel or other foot bones.

- Types of injuries caused:
  - Achilles tendinosis,
  - Achilles tendonitis,
  - Achilles tenosynovitis,
  - Tennis Leg, or
  - in the most severe cases: Achilles tendon rupture.

Improper Footwear

- Examples:
  - Shoes or sports shoes with too much or too little:
      Arch support,
      Cushioning,
      Motion control, and/or
      Heel support;
  - High heels; and
  - Worn out shoes or sports shoes.

- Types of injuries caused:
  - Achilles tendinosis,
  - Achilles tendonitis,
  - Achilles tenosynovitis,
  - Tennis Leg, or
  - in the most severe cases: Achilles tendon rupture.

Medication Side Effects

- The Quinolone group of antibiotics
  - Example: Ciprofloxacin (Cipro®, Baycip®, Cetraxal®, Ciflox®, Cifran®, Ciplox®, Cyprobay®, Quintor®).
  - Type of injuries caused:
      Achilles tendinosis,
      Achilles tendonitis,
      Achilles tenosynovitis,
      Tennis Leg, or
      in the most severe cases: Achilles tendon rupture.

- Cortisone
  - Cortisone is an indirect, rather than a direct, cause of Achilles tendon injury. Cortisone can make a weakened Achilles tendon feel too comfortable. A patient who has received cortisone shots in or near the Achilles tendon may be able to overly stretch or strain their Achilles tendon without any pain – until they stretch or strain it to the point of rupture
  - Contributing factor: the injury for which cortisone was prescribed.
  - Type of injury caused: Achilles tendon rupture.

Accidents

- Examples:
  - Crushed in a car or work accident; or
  - Cut (lacerated) by a lawn mower or in a work accident.

- Type of injuries caused:
  - Crushed Achilles tendon, or
  - Lacerated Achilles tendon.


For an explanation of the injuries themselves, see Injuries. For information on treatment see Treating Injuries. For information on preventing the recurrence of an injury see Preventing Injuries.


The above information was provided courtesy of www.AchillesTendon.com

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