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Contributions of the ankle and knee muscles to sprint starting.
Starting is an important component of the sprint race, especially the 100 m dash, since any errors made will affect a significant proportion of the race. The sprint start has been extensively analyzed yet there is little information available as to which muscle groups contribute to the motion, how much and how does each contribute, and in what order. It was the purpose of this research to investigate these aspects of sprint starting using link segment indirect dynamics.

The Sprint Start
Save as many split-seconds as you can on the start and you'll be in pretty good shape at the finish.

Sprint Mechanics
Viewing and reading this article about sprint mechanics and studying the photos of running form may improve your running speed, technique or coaching skills.

How much higher? How much faster?
An article about the limits of human body performance. It was published in Scientific American, 2000.

Training for the 400m (a review of the physiological factors of performance in the 400)
A review of the physiological factors of performance in the 400. The author does an excellent job of relating the physiological factors to the all-important aspect of race distribution

The Holy Grail in speed training
If coaches are going to train their sprinters like power lifters why not start with power lifters and train them to run faster? If it's just leg strength that makes a sprinter faster, we should recruit super heavyweight power lifters, work on their turnover rate, throw in some plyometrics, and finish off with some work out of the blocks. It would be easier than the current practice of blowing up a sprinter to look like the Michelin man (with or without drugs).
Sound ridiculous? Of course, but no more so than the current methods of speed training for sports which entirely misses the key to faster running--maintaining a delicate balance between strength gain and changes in bodyweight. It is the Holy Grail of sprinting, the most significant aspect to keep in mind when training for speed.

Iron for runners
You head out the door for an eight-mile run. Right from the start, your energy level is down, and your legs feel heavy. After 2 miles of uncharacteristic drudgery, you stop-then jog and walk home.
What's the problem? Could be low iron. Iron is vital to running performance. Despite this importance, many runners do not monitor their body's iron levels. Even many physicians do not understand the complete role of iron for endurance athletes.

Common Nutrition Issues
Sprinters need to consume sufficient carbohydrate to fuel training needs, however carbohydrate requirements do not reach the level of endurance-type athletes. Sprinters need to be mindful of maintaining low body fat levels but still need to eat a sufficient variety and quantity of food to meet nutritional requirements and allow for the development of muscle mass. Diets need to be nutrient-dense. This is best achieved by including a wide variety of nutrient-dense carbohydrate sources such as bread, cereal, fruit, vegetables and sweetened dairy products in the diet. Moderate portions of lean sources of protein such as lean meat, skin-free chicken, eggs, low-fat dairy foods, lentils and tofu should also be on the menu. Energy-dense foods such as cakes, pastries, lollies, soft drinks, chocolate, alcohol and takeaways should be used sparingly. Appropriate snacks need to be included before and after training to maximise performance during training and to promote recovery. Snack foods such as yoghurt, fresh fruit, low-fat flavoured milk and sandwiches are all nutritious fuel foods and makegood snacks.

The hidden benefits of Glutamine
Article by Lynn Clay BSc, Sports Nutrition Consultant, AAA of England 10 mile champion

Creatine guide. Part 1: Background Questions
Creatine is, and always has been, a natural component of skeletal muscle. The only reason that creatine may seem like something new is a recent boom in scientific research in the area since the early 1990s. In a sense, creatine was rediscovered when world-class athletes became wise to the option of utilizing it to enhance their physical performance.

Creatine guide. Part 2: How much creatine to take and when to supplement.
First of all, DO NOT oversupplement! Taking more creatine than is actually required to fill your muscular stores places an unwarranted stress on your body's cleansing and detoxification systems (kidneys and liver, respectively) as well as is a waste of creatine, and most importantly, cash!

Creatine guide. Part 3: How does creatine cause muscle growth?
Creatine promotes muscle growth in two principal ways...

Creatine guide. Part 4: Risks, Side Effects & Benefits
Understandably, "What are creatine's side effects?" is my most frequently asked question. While several classes of side effects have unequivocally been linked to creatine consumption, others have not. I will begin this section by describing those side effects which have been clearly linked to creatine use and end with a discussion of the side effects often attributed to creatine consumption, but largely unexplained based on our current knowledge of creatine's accepted mechanisms of action, and give some possible explanations.

Periodization Problems
By Dr. A. Bondarchuk
From: Legkaya Atletika (U.S.S.R.)
No. 12, December 1986.

There have been many confusing ideas introduced to the theory of periodization since its introduction in the 1960’s. As several of these ideas are not acceptable, it appears to be advisable to clarify some major points of the principles applicable to the structuring of a single or double periodized training year.

Basic Principles Applicable to The Construction of Macrocycles
By Dr. Atko Viru
Leading Estonian sport scientist, Prof. Dr. Atko Viru, sums up the basic principles involved in the planning of macrocycles and discusses the main problems in the adjustment of training loads and intensities in the preparation period. The article is based on translated extracts from the author’s book Sportlik Treening, published by Eesti, Raamat, Tallinn, Estonian SSR, 1998.

Planning of Macrocycles
By Dr. Atko Viru
Professor Viru at the University of Tartu discusses general principles involved in the planning of macrocycles and looks in detail into the latest information in the design of concentrated strength blocks in the training program. The article is a translated summary by the editor from Kehakultuur, Vol. 47, No. 19, 1986, Tallinn, Estonian SSR.

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